For our purposes, the transportation industry includes heavier trucks, buses, railway cars (local and long distance passenger-carrying and cargo-carrying), aircraft and ships. See Automotive for issues related to passenger automobiles and light trucks.
In this widely diverse industry, a wide range of nickel-containing materials are used. In aircraft engines, which operate at very high temperatures and stresses, special nickel-based alloys are used. At the other extreme, in the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which occurs at temperatures of around -163°C, highly ductile materials such as 304 (UNS S30400) stainless steel, 9% nickel steels (K81340) and more recently 36% nickel-irons (K93600) are used. In the transport of food products or chemicals, whether by truck, rail or ship, stainless steels of various types are commonly used.
For further details on this segment, see Applications and Materials Selection.
Related News and Articles
Aerospace Nickel Coatings and Alloys The advantages of nickel in aircraft engine turbines are well-known and include high-temperature strength, toughness, durability and castability. Aircraft manufacturers go to great lengths to ensure that their products are safe, that strength is beyond merely adequate, and that corrosion is anticipated and managed as efficiently as possible. Little surprise that nickel is ubiquitous in these machines which figure so prominently in our daily lives. This hand-out, produced by the Nickel Institute and NASF clearly illustrates the diverse use of nickel coatings and alloys used in an airplane.
Stainless Steel for the Long Haul (Nickel Magazine, June 2011)
Corrosion resistance combined with aesthetic appeal make stainless steel an ideal metal for the manufacture of passenger rail cars.
Massive Q-Max Carriers (Nickel Magazine, July 2009)
Large scale tankers of stainless steel and iron-nickel alloys save fuel, produce fewer carbon emissions, and reduce cargo losses.
Light Flight (Nickel Magazine, Mar. 2008)
How nickel contributes to more fuel efficient aircraft such as the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A-380, and how this contributes to more efficient air transportation.
See other Nickel Magazine stories about this industry.
Knowledge Base - NI Learning Modules
Some of the NI on-line Learning Modules relate to the transport of chemicals, whether by road, rail or water.
Ni-Resist and Ductile Ni-Resist Alloys, NI Publication 11018
The Ni-Resist cast irons are a family of alloys with sufficient nickel to produce an austenitic structure which has unique and superior properties.
High Performance Stainless Steels, NI Publication 11021
The high-performance stainless steels are a family of stainless steels which have distinctly superior corrosion resistance in a wide variety of aggressive environments and are more technically demanding than Types 304 and 316 with regard to metallurgy and fabrication requirements. This is due to the nature of the steels themselves and the demanding applications in which they are used. A thorough understanding of these stainless steels is necessary to use them successfully. This publication provides assistance in making the optimum material selection for a given application, and provides guidance in the fabrication and use of the selected grade.
Alloy Selection for Caustic Soda Service, NI Publication 10019
A number of construction materials may be used to handle caustic solutions. Selection factors include availability, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, risk/benefit considerations and economics. Critical factors in caustic service are listed, as are the metals and alloys most frequently considered for use in caustic soda - carbon steel, stainless steels, nickel and high-nickel alloys.
Other publications related to the Transportation Industry.