Literature on copper-nickel alloys

Welding copper-nickel alloys videos

A series of 5 short Copper Development Association Inc videos practically demonstrate the important aspects and common techniques used for welding copper-nickel alloys.

Copper Alloys versus Stainless Steels for Seawater Cooling Systems. The Pros and Cons. Roger Francis. 2020. (11027)

Both Copper-nickels and high alloys stainless steels are used successfully for sea water cooling systems. This publication examines the range of factors that need to be considered when assessing the strengths and weaknesses of both alloy systems for optimum performance.

Copper-Nickel Welding and Fabrication 3rd Edition, 2018 (12014)

Information on good welding, fabrication and operational practices for 90-10
and 70-30 copper-nickel alloys. General engineering properties, corrosion performance and applications in seawater are also included. 2018

Smooth Sailing, Nickel Magazine vol.20 n°2, p.16

Perhaps the oldest copper-nickel boat in existence, the Asperida is still in fine shape.

Managing Galvanic Corrosion (14027)

This paper summarised 22 case histories of severe galvanic corrosion problems and solutions that the author has encountered in heat exchangers, condensers, pumps and valves, welds in hull plate, copper-nickel and nickel-copper, fasteners, ballast tanks and partially-lined tanks. There are guidelines to assist engineers in managing galvanic corrosion problems that they may encounter.

Guidelines for Welding Dissimilar Metals (14018)

Nickel-containing stainless steels and nickel- and copper-base alloys are readily fusion-welded to carbon and low-alloy steels and to each other. Methods are described to estimate the weld metal composition of dissimilar-metal welds. Knowing the composition, weld properties can be predicted for a wide range of dissimilar-metal welds.

Fusion Boundary Cracking in CuNi10Fe Weldments (14016)

Effects of parent material purity, weld heat-input and weld metal composition on fusion boundary cracking when welding thick, wrought, CuNi10Fe alloy plates.

Copper-Nickel Alloys - Properties and Applications (12007)

Copper has excellent atmospheric and fresh water corrosion resistance. The addition of nickel to copper further improves its strength and durability and also its resistance to corrosion, erosion and cavitation in all-natural waters, including seawater and brackish, treated or polluted waters. 

Guidelines for the Use of Copper Alloys in Seawater (12003)

Guidelines to allow engineers to make a reasonable estimate of the effect of the environment on copper alloy performance.

Design, Water Factors Affecting Service-Water Piping Materials (10043)

The report identifies some of the principal factors that affect the performance of piping used for cooling water. Although several factors are interrelated, each is considered separately. This allows the engineer to use the report as an engineering checklist to ensure that none of the major factors has been overlooked. Studied are: carbon steel cement-lined piping and other coated steel piping types; nickel-containing stainless steels; copper-nickel alloys and aluminum bronze; and 6% molybdenum austenitic stainless steels and titanium. Factors that affect their behaviour are identified and one of three ratings given.

Nickel-Containing Alloys Piping for Offshore Oil and Gas Production (10033)

Presented at the 28th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Meeting of Sea and Science, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Aug 20-24, 1989. Considered are the technical (including fabrication) and economic factors influencing the choice of nickel-containing alloy piping - topside and subsea system applications (excluding downhole) in stainless steels (standard austenitic, duplex and high-alloy grades), nickel-base alloys and cupronickels.

Nickel-Containing Materials in Marine and Related Environments (10011)

The need for large volumes of water for cooling purposes in the desalination industry has resulted in the location of many major industries on the coast. Recognised as the most corrosive natural environment, marine areas cause design problems in selecting materials that offer good performance at reasonable cost. Nickel-containing materials -- such as copper-nickel alloys, stainless steels and nickel-base alloys have been found to provide optimum techno-economic solutions.

The Resistance of Copper-Nickel Alloys to Ammonia Corrosion in Simulated Steam Condenser Environments (1305)

Discusses the resistance of condenser tube copper alloys to ammonia corrosion. Gives laboratory test results on commercially-produced condenser tubes using a number of alloys exposed to several simulated steam condenser environments. The copper-nickel alloys are shown to be extremely resistant to general ammonia attack.

The Influence of Corrosion and Fouling on Steam Condenser Performance (1304)

Discusses the performance of some alloys used as condenser tubes in steam power plants. Materials investigated include copper alloys, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels and titanium. Condenser tube performance in saltwater and in brackish, fresh and recirculated cooling waters are given. 

CA-706 Copper-Nickel Alloy Hulls: The Copper Mariner's Experience and Economics (1265)

Four-year real-world operating experience with the CA-706 Copper-nickel alloy hull of the Copper Mariner has shown it to be a good business investment for workboats as well as potentially for large vessels.

The Interrelation of Corrosion and Fouling of Metals in Seawater (1240)

Presents fouling characteristics of metals and alloys in seawater. Materials covered include carbon steel, an aluminium alloy, copper and copper-nickel alloys.

The Design and Installation of 90-10 Copper Nickel Seawater Piping Systems (1107)

Discusses problems encountered when upgrading seawater cooling systems from galvanized steel to copper-nickel. Suggests ways for improving the reliability of existing systems and those now being built in high-performance cargo vessels and tankers.

Copper-Nickel Alloys for Feedwater Heater Service (375)

Reviews some of the problems associated with corrosion and scaling of feedwater heater tubing in the steam systems of electrical power stations. An accelerated laboratory test has been developed to show the susceptibility of copper-nickel alloys to scale exfoliation. A wide range of copper-nickel alloys, including 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40, were evaluated for potential feedwater heater service.

In addition to the documents accessible from this copper-nickel alloy web page section, the Nickel Institute have an internal literature archive of over 200 documents retained for research purposes and technical support.

A selection of informative documents from various sources are:

Alloys of Copper and Nickel for Splash Zone Sheathing of Marine Structures. C.A.Powell and H. Michel. CDA Inc 2002. Content provided by and with the permission of the Copper Development Association, Inc.- All rights reserved.
Two alloys predominate for metal sheathing in the splash zone of offshore structures namely 65%Ni-Cu alloy 400 and 90-10 Cu-Ni. The former has been applied to legs and risers dating back over 70 years and 90-10 was applied to legs 40 years ago. This is a summary from 2002 of the experience until that time.

Aspects of Biofouling and Corrosion on Ship Hulls Clad with Copper-Nickel. L.H Boulton, C.A.Powell and W.B.Hudson. Proceedings of Corrosion and Prevention ’99 Sydney 1999.
This paper describes a 5 year study of the performance trials and evaluation of adhesively backed 90-10 copper-nickel foil on the hulls of 2 commercial New Zealand passenger ferries.

Copper Alloys for Marine Environments. CDA UK Publication 206. 2018
A CDA UK publication which includes an overview of the properties of copper-nickels and nickel aluminium bronze and their application in marine environments.

Copper Alloys in Seawater: Avoidance of Corrosion CDA UK Publication 225 R. Francis 2018
A CDA UK publication which provides design guidelines for optimum corrosion performance of predominantly copper-nickels in seawater piping systems.

Compendium-The Application of Copper Nickel Alloys in Marine Systems. CDA Inc/Nickel Institute. 1992 Seminar Technical Report 7044-1919, CDA Inc
This 6 paper compendium from 1992 provides a wealth of information relevant to copper-nickel alloys covering overall corrosion properties and application in seawater systems, condensers and heat exchangers, desalination, and sheathing of marine structures and boat hulls.

Copper-Nickel Alloys: Properties, Processing, Application 2002
An English translation of a German Copper Institute (DKI) in-depth overview detailing the properties of copper-nickel alloys.

Kupfer-Nickel-Legierungen (in German) DKI Publication i14 Germany 2021
A 2021 update of the above currently in German

Corrosion and Copper Release Rates. Phull B, Powell,C. and Michel J.Presentation Corrosion 2013.Content provided by and with the permission of the Copper Development Association, Inc.- All rights reserved
Uniquely provides long term data and associated copper release rates for predominantly 90-10 copper-nickel over 5 years in 15 different international sites .

Experience with Copper Alloy Tubing, Waterboxes and Piping in MSF Desalination Plants Tuthill, A. Todd,B. Oldfield,J Paper No 73 IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse Madrid 1997
A review of experience gained from copper-nickels in MSF desalination plants over 30 years. Ammonia, sulphides, chlorine, sand, temperature, oxygen, vapour side corrosion and their technical aspects are also examined.

Heat Exchangers and Piping Systems from Copper Alloys - Commissioning, Operating and Shutdown Jasner,M. Hecht,M and Beckman,W Publication by KM Europa Metal Aktiengesellschaft 1998
The corrosion behaviour of copper-nickel alloys depends very closely on the soundness of the complex protective surface films which form by reaction with seawater. Supportive measures from flow rate, ferrous sulphate dosing, cleaning and chlorination are examined.

Long-Term Exposure Trials Evaluating the Biofouling Resistance of Copper Nickel Alloy Sheathing Materials Campbell S., Fletcher, R. and Powell, C. The 12th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling Southampton UK 2004
90-10 copper-nickel samples ranging from sheet, adhesive backed foil and granules embedded in rubber were exposed for 7-8 years in Langstone Harbour, UK and their performance monitored, There was an expected build up of microfouling but attachment of macrofouling was very limited.

Low Temperature Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys CDA Inc Application Data Sheet 144/8 R. Content provided by and with the permission of the Copper Development Association, Inc.- All rights reserved.
90-10 and 70-30 Copper-Nickels can be used down to cryogenic temperatures without experiencing ductile/brittle transitions. This publication shows of mechanical and moduli values down to 4oK for a range of copper alloys including the copper-nickels and nickel aluminium bronze.

Review of BNF Studies of the Effect of Chlorine and Pollutants on the Corrosion of Copper Alloy Condenser Tubes. Francis. R and Campbell, H EFC Marine Corrosion Workshop presentation, Eurocorr 2008. Updated 2020.
Results of early impingement testing provided an understanding of how copper-nickel alloys behave in polluted seawater containing sulphide and ammonia, and the effects of chlorine and ferrous ions to mitigate corrosion.

Soldering and Brazing of Copper and Copper Alloys DKI i3 Germany
A comprehensive overview by the German Copper Institute (DKI) of brazing and soldering of copper alloys including copper-nickels.

Typical Failures of 90/10 CuNi Sea water Tubing Systems and How to Avoid Them. W. Schleich Eurocorr 2004. Nice.
With the permission of KME, this paper provides practical guidance for correct composition, flow rates, conditions during commissioning, pollution, chlorination and galvanic behaviour.

Technical documents on copper-nickel alloys can also be found on

This includes a detailed Cu-Ni webcast which is ideal for instruction or training purposes:

Copper-Nickel Alloys for Marine Environments Properties and Applications, by Carol Powell and Mark Tur:


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