Environmental Health Articles


Special Series on Metal Bioavailability Modeling

A six paper series on metals bioavailability modeling was published in the peer-review journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in January, 2020.  The papers are the outcome of a workshop that took place in December, 2017, under the auspices of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).  Chris Schlekat of NiPERA served as co-chair of the SETAC Workshop and Guest Editor for the publication series.  Global regulatory authorities will benefit from the recommendations provided in the papers in terms of systematically evaluating existing bioavailability models, developing new models, and making choices when multiple models are available.

2020. Adams W, Blust R, Dwyer R, Mount D, Nordheim E, Rodriguez PH, Spry D. Bioavailability Assessment of Metals in Freshwater Environments: A Historical Review. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 48-59. doi: 10.1002/etc.4558.

2020. Brix KV, DeForest DK, Tear L, Peijnenburg W, Peters A, Middleton ET, Erickson R. Development of Empirical Bioavailability Models for Metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 85-100. doi: 10.1002/etc.4570.

2020. Garman ER, Meyer JS, Bergeron CM, Blewett TA, Clements WH, Elias MC, Farley KJ, Gissi F, Ryan AC. Validation of Bioavailability‐Based Toxicity Models for Metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 101-117. doi: 10.1002/etc.4563.

2020. Mebane CA, Chowdhury MJ, De Schamphelaere KA, Lofts S, Paquin PR, Santore RC, Wood CM. Metal Bioavailability Models: Current Status, Lessons Learned, Considerations for Regulatory Use, and the Path Forward. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 60-84. doi: 10.1002/etc.4560.

2020. Schlekat C, Stubblefield W, Gallagher K. State of the Science on Metal Bioavailability Modeling: Introduction to the Outcome of a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Technical Workshop. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 42-47. doi: 10.1002/etc.4561.

2020. Van Genderen E, Stauber JL, Delos C, Eignor D, Gensemer RW, McGeer J, Merrington G, Whitehouse P. Best Practices for Derivation and Application of Thresholds for Metals Using Bioavailability‐Based Approaches. Environ Toxicol Chem 39: 118-130. doi: 10.1002/etc.4559.


2020. Crémazy A, Brix KV, Smith DS, Chen W, Grosell M, Schlekat CE, Garman ER, Middleton ET, Wood CM. A Mystery Tale: Nickel Is Fickle When Snails Fail—Investigating the Variability in Ni Toxicity to the Great Pond Snail. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 16(6) 983-997.

2020. Gillmore ML, et al. Effects of dissolved nickel and nickel-contaminated suspended sediment on the scleractinian coral, Acropora muricata. Marine Pollution Bulletin 152: 110886.

2020. Gissi F, Wang Z, Batley GE, Leung KM, Schlekat CE, Garman ER, Stauber JL. Deriving a Chronic Guideline Value for Nickel in Tropical and Temperate Marine Waters. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 39(12): 2540-2551.

2020. Mano H, Shinohara N. Acute Toxicity of Nickel to Daphnia magna: Validation of Bioavailability Models in Japanese Rivers. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 231(9): 1-11.

2020. Mano H, Shinohara N, Naito W. Reproduction Sensitivity of Five Daphnia Species to Nickel. Journal of Water and Environment Technology 18(6): 372-382.

2020. Meyer JS, Lyons‐Darden T, Garman ER, Middleton ET, Schlekat CE. Toxicity of Nanoparticulate Nickel to Aquatic Organisms: Review and Recommendations for Improvement of Toxicity Tests. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39(10): 1861-1883.

2020. Peters A, Merrington G, Stauber J, Golding L, Batley G, Gissi F, Merrin A, Binet M, McKnight K, Schlekat CE, Garman E, Middleton E. Empirical bioavailability corrections for nickel in freshwaters for Australia and New Zealand water quality guideline development. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 40(1) 113-126.

2020. Peters A, Nys C, Merrington G, Verdonck F, Baken S, Cooper CA, Van Assche F, Schlekat C, Garman E. Demonstrating the Reliability of bio‐met for Determining Compliance with Environmental Quality Standards for Metals in Europe. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39(12): 2361-2377.

2020. Soucek DJ, Dickinson A, Schlekat C, Van Genderen E, Hammer EJ. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Nickel and Zinc to a Laboratory Cultured Mayfly (Neocloeon triangulifer) in Aqueous but Fed Exposures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39(6)1196-1206.

2020. Stauber J, Golding L, Peters A, Merrington G, Adams M, Binet M, Schlekat C. Application of Bioavailability Models to Derive Chronic Guideline Values for Nickel in Freshwaters of Australia and New Zealand. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 40(1): 100-112.

2020. Wang N, Kunz JL, Cleveland DM, Steevens JA, Hammer EJ, Van Genderen E, Ryan AC, Schlekat CE. Evaluation of Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Nickel and Zinc to 2 Sensitive Freshwater Benthic Invertebrates Using Refined Testing Methods. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39(11): 2256-2268.

2020. Wang Z, Yeung KW, Zhou GJ, Yung MM, Schlekat CE, Garman ER, et al. Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel on freshwater and marine tropical aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 206: 111373.

2019. Burton GA Jr, Hudson ML, Huntsman P, Carbonaro RF, Rader KJ, Waeterschoot H, Baken S, Garman E. Weight‐of‐Evidence Approach for Assessing Removal of Metals from the Water Column for Chronic Environmental Hazard Classification. Environ Toxicol Chem 38: 1839-1849. doi: 10.1002/etc.4470.

2019. Buxton S, Garman E, Heim KE, Lyons-Darden T, Schlekat CE, Taylor MD, Oller AR. Concise review of nickel human health toxicology and ecotoxicology. Inorganics 7(7): 89.

2019. Crémazy A, Brix KV, Wood CM. Using the Biotic Ligand Model framework to investigate binary metal interactions on the uptake of Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Science of The Total Environment 647: 1611–1625. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.455.

2019. Dutton MD, Vasiluk L, Ford F, Bellantino Perco M, Taylor SR, Lopez K, Bolger GT, Gopalapillai Y, Hale B. Towards an exposure narrative for metals and arsenic in historically contaminated Ni refinery soils: Relationships between speciation, bioavailability, and bioaccessibility. Sci Total Environ 686: 805-818. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.164

2019. Gissi F, Reichelt-Brushett AJ, Chariton AA, Stauber JL, Greenfield P, Humphrey C, Salmon M, Stephenson SA, Cresswell T, Jolley DF. The effect of dissolved nickel and copper on the adult coral Acropora muricata and its microbiome. Environmental Pollution 250: 792-806.

2019. Huntsman P, Beaudoin R, Rader KJ, Carbonaro RF, Allen Burton G Jr, Hudson M, Baken S, Garman E, Waeterschoot H. Method Development for Determining the Removal of Metals from the Water Column under Transformation/Dissolution Conditions for Chronic Hazard Classification. Environ Toxicol Chem 38: 2032-2042. doi:10.1002/etc.4471.

2019. Martin OV, Adams J, Beasley A, Belanger S, Breton R, Brock T, Buonsante VA, Burgos MK, Green J, Guiney P, Hall T, Hanson ML, Harris MJ, Henry TA, Huggett D, Junghans M, Laskowski R, Maack G, Moermond C, Panter G, Pease A, Poulsen V, Roberts M, Rudén C, Schlekat C, Schoeters I, Solomon K, Staveley J, Stubblefield W, Sumpter J, Warne MSJ, Wentsel R, Wheeler J, Wolff BA, Yamazaki K, Zahner H. Improving environmental risk assessments of chemicals: steps towards evidence-based ecotoxicology. Environment International 128: 210-217.

2019. Nys C, Van Regenmortel T, De Schamphelaere K. The Effects of Nickel on the Structure and Functioning of a Freshwater Plankton Community Under High Dissolved Organic Carbon Conditions: A Microcosm Experiment. Environ Toxicol Chem 38: 1923-1939. doi: 10.1002/etc.4504.

2019. Peters A, Merrington G, Leverett D, Wilson I, Schlekat C, Garman E. Comparison of the chronic toxicity of nickel to temperate and tropical freshwater species. Environ Toxicol Chem 38: 1211-1220. doi: 10.1002/etc.4384.

2018. Gissi F, Stauber JL, Binet MT, Trenfield MA, Van Dam JW, Jolley DF. Assessing the chronic toxicity of nickel to a tropical marine gastropod and two crustaceans. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 159: 284-292.

2018. Peters A, Merrington G, Schlekat C, De Schamphelaere K, Stauber J, Batley G, Harford A, van Dam R, Pease C, Mooney T, Warne M, Hickey C, Glazebrook P, Chapman J, Smith R, Krassoi R. Validation of the nickel biotic ligand model for locally relevant species in Australian freshwaters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37(10): 2566-2574.

2017. Binet M, Adams M, Gissi F, Golding L, Schlekat C, Garman E, Merrington G, Stauber J. Toxicity of nickel to tropical freshwater and sediment biota–a critical literature review and gap analysis. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. doi: 10.1002/etc.3988.

2017. Brix KV, Tellis MS, Crémazy A, Wood CM. Characterization of the effects of binary metal mixtures on short-term uptake of Cd, Pb, and Zn by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol 193: 217-227. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.10.015.

2017. Gissi F, Stauber J, Reichelt-Brushett A, Harrison PL, Jolley DF. Inhibition in fertilisation of coral gametes following exposure to nickel and copper. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 145: 32-41. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.07.009.

2017. Hale B, Gopalapillai Y, Pellegrino A, Jennett T, Kikkert J, Lau W, Schlekat C, McLaughlin M. Validation of Site-Specific Soil Ni Toxicity Thresholds with Independent Ecotoxicity and Biogeochemistry Data for Elevated Soil Ni. Environmental Pollution 231: 165-172.

2017. Mendonca R, Daley J, Hudson M, Schlekat C, Burton, Jr. GA, Costello D. Metal Oxides in Surface Sediment Control Nickel Bioavailability to Benthic Macroinvertebrates Environ Sci Technol 51 (22): 13407-13416.

2017. Schlekat CE, Merrington G, Leverett D, Peters A. Chemical standard derivation for the protection of aquatic life: A guided world tour. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13(4): 794-796. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1919.

2017. Traudt EM, Ranville JF, Meyer JS. Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates. Environ Toxicol Chem 36: 113-119. doi: 10.1002/etc.3507.

2016. Blewett TA, Smith DS, Wood CM, Glover CN. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in the highly sensitive embryos of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus, and the modifying effects of natural organic matter. Environ Sci Technol (50) 1595-1603.

2016. Brix KV, Schlekat CE, Garman E. The mechanisms of nickel toxicity in aquatic environments: An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) analysis. Environ Toxicol Chem. doi: 10.1002/etc.3706.

2016. Brix KV, Tellis MT, Crémazy A, Wood CM. Characterization of the effects of binary metal mixtures on short-term uptake of Ag, Cu, and Ni by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology 180: 236-246.

2016. Costello DM, Hammerschmidt CR, Burton GA. Nickel partitioning and toxicity in sediment during aging: Variation in toxicity related to stability of metal partitioning. Environmental Science & Technology 50: 11337-11345.

2016. Merrington G, Peters A, Schlekat C. Accounting for metal bioavailability in assessing water quality: A step change? Environ Toxicol Chem 35: 257-265.

2016. Nys C, Janssen CR, Blust R, Smolders E, De Schamphelaere KA. Reproductive toxicity of binary and ternary mixture combinations of nickel, zinc, and lead to Ceriodaphnia dubia is best predicted with the independent action model. Environ Toxicol Chem 35(7): 1796-1805. doi: 10.1002/etc.3332.

2016. Nys C, Janssen CR, Van Sprang P, De Schamphelaere KA. The effect of pH on chronic aquatic nickel toxicity is dependent on the pH itself: Extending the chronic nickel bioavailability models. Environ Toxicol Chem 35: 1097-1106.

2016. Peters A, Schlekat CE, Merrington G. Does the Scientific Underpinning of Regulatory Tools to Estimate Bioavailability of Nickel in Freshwaters Matter? The European-Wide Environmental Quality Standard for Nickel. Environ Toxicol Chem. doi: 10.1002/etc.3510.

2016. Ruden C, Adams J, Agerstrand M, Brock TCM, Poulsen V, Schlekat CE, Wheeler JR, Henry TR. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision-making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1846.

2016. Schlekat CE, Garman ER, Vangheluwe MLU, Burton GA Jr. Development of a bioavailability-based risk assessment approach for Ni in sediments. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 12(4): 753-46. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1720.

2016. Traudt EM, Ranville JF, Smith SA, Meyer JS. A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of Ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration–response curves. Environ Toxicol Chem 35: 1843-1851. doi: 10.1002/etc.3342.

Special Series on Metal Mixture Modeling

A Special Section of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry on the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation Project was supported by NiPERA and guest edited by E. Garman. This section is made up of twelve articles that represent a technical review of metal mixture theory and research, syntheses of methods and results from the MMME project, technical basis and applications of bioavailability-based modeling approaches, and new metal mixture data sets. The issue was published in the April 2015 issue of ET&C 34(4).

2015. Farley KJ, Meyer JS. Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation: 3. Lessons learned and steps forward. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(4): 821-832. doi: 10.1002/etc.2837.

2015. Meyer JS, Farley KJ, Balistrieri LS, De Schamphelaere KAC, Iwasaki Y, Janssen C, Kamo M, Lofts S, Mebane C, Naito W, Ryan AC, Santore R, Tipping E. Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation Project: 2. Comparison of Four Modeling Approaches. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(4): 741-753. doi: 10.1002/etc.2820.

2015. Meyer JS, Farley KJ, Garman ER. Metal Mixtures Modeling Evaluation: 1. Background. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(4): 726-740. doi: 10.1002/etc.2792.

2015. Van Genderen E, Adams W, Dwyer R, Garman E, Gorsuch J. Modeling and Interpreting Biological Effects of Mixtures in the Environment- Introduction to the Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation Project. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(4): 721-5.


2015. Buekers J, De Brouwere K, Lefebvre W, Willems H, Vandenbroele M, Van Sprang P, Eliat-Eliat M, Hicks K, Schlekat CE, Oller AR. Assessment of human exposure to environmental sources of nickel in Europe: Inhalation exposure. Science of the Total Environment 521-522: 359-371.

2015. Hommen U, Knopf B, Rudel H, Schafers C, De Schamphelaere K, Schlekat C, Garman E. A microcosm study to support aquatic risk assessment of nickel: Community-level effects and comparison with bioavailability-normalized species sensitivity distributions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. doi: 10.1002/etc.3255.

2015. Nys C, Asselman J, Hochmuth JD, Janssen CR, Blust R, Smolders E, De Schamphelaere KAC. Mixture toxicity of nickel and zinc to Daphnia magna is noninteractive at low effect sizes but becomes synergistic at high effect sizes: Interactive effects in a binary Ni-Zn mixture Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(5) 1091-102.

2015. Skeaff JM, Beaudoin R. Transformation/Dissolution Characteristics of a Nickel Matte and Nickel Concentrates for Acute and Chronic Hazard Classification. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 11(1): 130-42. doi:10.1002/ieam.1573.

2014. Chandler GT, Schlekat CE, Garman E, He L, Washburn K, Stewart E, Ferry JL. Sediment Nickel Bioavailability and Toxicity to Estuarine Crustaceans of Contrasting Bioturbative Behaviors–An Evaluation of the SEM-AVS Paradigm. Environmental Science and Technology 48(21): 12893-901.

2014. Peters A, Simpson P, Merrington G, Schlekat C, Rogevich Garman E. Assessment of the effects of nickel on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21: 193-204.

2014. Tellis MS, Lauer MM, Nadella SR, Bianchini A, Wood CM. The effects of Cu and Ni on the embryonic life stages of the purple sea urchin (Strogylocentrotus purpuratus). Archiv Environ Contam Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/s00244-014-0069-8.

2012. De Brouwere K,  Buekers J,  Cornelis C, Schlekat CE, Oller, AR. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: Oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects. STOTEN 419: 25-36.