Literature on copper-nickel alloys

Copper-Nickel Welding and Fabrication 2nd Edition, February 2013 (12014)

Information on welding and fabrication of 90-10 and 70-30 Cu-Ni Alloys. General engineering properties, corrosion and biofouling resistance and applications included where influencing decisions on fabrication.

Welding copper-nickel videos

Smooth Sailing, Nickel Magazine vol.20 n°2, p.16

Perhaps the oldest copper-nickel boat in existence, the Asperida is still in fine shape.

Managing Galvanic Corrosion (14027)

This paper summarised 22 case histories of severe galvanic corrosion problems and solutions that the author has encountered in heat exchangers, condensers, pumps and valves, welds in hull plate, copper-nickel and nickel-copper, fasteners, ballast tanks and partially-lined tanks. There are guidelines to assist engineers in managing galvanic corrosion problems that they may encounter.

Guidelines for Welding Dissimilar Metals (14018)

Nickel-containing stainless steels and nickel- and copper-base alloys are readily fusion-welded to carbon and low-alloy steels and to each other. Methods are described to estimate the weld metal composition of dissimilar-metal welds. Knowing the composition, weld properties can be predicted for a wide range of dissimilar-metal welds.

Fusion Boundary Cracking in CuNi10Fe Weldments (14016)

Effects of parent material purity, weld heat-input and weld metal composition on fusion boundary cracking when welding thick, wrought, CuNi10Fe alloy plates.

Copper-Nickel Alloys - Properties and Applications (12007)

Copper has excellent atmospheric and fresh water corrosion resistance. The addition of nickel to copper further improves its strength and durability and also its resistance to corrosion, erosion and cavitation in all-natural waters, including seawater and brackish, treated or polluted waters. 

Guidelines for the Use of Copper Alloys in Seawater (12003)

Guidelines to allow engineers to make a reasonable estimate of the effect of the environment on copper alloy performance.

Design, Water Factors Affecting Service-Water Piping Materials (10043)

The report identifies some of the principal factors that affect the performance of piping used for cooling water. Although several factors are interrelated, each is considered separately. This allows the engineer to use the report as an engineering checklist to ensure that none of the major factors has been overlooked. Studied are: carbon steel cement-lined piping and other coated steel piping types; nickel-containing stainless steels; copper-nickel alloys and aluminum bronze; and 6% molybdenum austenitic stainless steels and titanium. Factors that affect their behaviour are identified and one of three ratings given.

Nickel-Containing Alloys Piping for Offshore Oil and Gas Production (10033)

Presented at the 28th Annual Conference of Metallurgists of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Meeting of Sea and Science, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Aug 20-24, 1989. Considered are the technical (including fabrication) and economic factors influencing the choice of nickel-containing alloy piping - topside and subsea system applications (excluding downhole) in stainless steels (standard austenitic, duplex and high-alloy grades), nickel-base alloys and cupronickels.

Nickel-Containing Materials in Marine and Related Environments (10011)

The need for large volumes of water for cooling purposes in the desalination industry has resulted in the location of many major industries on the coast. Recognised as the most corrosive natural environment, marine areas cause design problems in selecting materials that offer good performance at reasonable cost. Nickel-containing materials -- such as copper-nickel alloys, stainless steels and nickel-base alloys have been found to provide optimum techno-economic solutions.

The Resistance of Copper-Nickel Alloys to Ammonia Corrosion in Simulated Steam Condenser Environments (1305)

Discusses the resistance of condenser tube copper alloys to ammonia corrosion. Gives laboratory test results on commercially-produced condenser tubes using a number of alloys exposed to several simulated steam condenser environments. The copper-nickel alloys are shown to be extremely resistant to general ammonia attack.

The Influence of Corrosion and Fouling on Steam Condenser Performance (1304)

Discusses the performance of some alloys used as condenser tubes in steam power plants. Materials investigated include copper alloys, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels and titanium. Condenser tube performance in saltwater and in brackish, fresh and recirculated cooling waters are given. 

CA-706 Copper-Nickel Alloy Hulls: The Copper Mariner's Experience and Economics (1265)

Four-year real-world operating experience with the CA-706 Copper-nickel alloy hull of the Copper Mariner has shown it to be a good business investment for workboats as well as potentially for large vessels.

The Interrelation of Corrosion and Fouling of Metals in Seawater (1240)

Presents fouling characteristics of metals and alloys in seawater. Materials covered include carbon steel, an aluminium alloy, copper and copper-nickel alloys.

The Design and Installation of 90-10 Copper Nickel Seawater Piping Systems (1107)

Discusses problems encountered when upgrading seawater cooling systems from galvanized steel to copper-nickel. Suggests ways for improving the reliability of existing systems and those now being built in high-performance cargo vessels and tankers.

Copper-Nickel Alloys for Feedwater Heater Service (375)

Reviews some of the problems associated with corrosion and scaling of feedwater heater tubing in the steam systems of electrical power stations. An accelerated laboratory test has been developed to show the susceptibility of copper-nickel alloys to scale exfoliation. A wide range of copper-nickel alloys, including 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40, were evaluated for potential feedwater heater service.

Other resources

Technical documents on copper-nickel alloys can also be found in the CDAUK Resource Library and

There is also a detailed Cu-Ni webcast:

Copper-Nickel Alloys for Marine Environments Properties and Applications, by Carol Powell and Mark Tur:

Material on

Long-Term Exposure Trials Evaluating the Biofouling Resistance of Copper Nickel Alloy Sheathing Materials, Campbell S., Fletcher R., and Powell, C., July 2004, The 12th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, Southampton, UK.

Cu-Ni Alloys in Desalination Systems, B. Todd, Seminar Technical Report 7044-1919, CDA Inc. The Application of Cu-Ni Alloys in Marine Systems.

Experience with Copper Alloy Tubing, Waterboxes and Piping in MSF Desalination Plants, Tuthill, B. Todd, J. Oldfield, Vol. III, Paper n°73, pp521, October 6-9, 1997, IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse, Madrid, International Desalination Association (IDA); Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX); Ministerio de Medio Ambiente; Ministerio de Formento; Madrid, Spain.

The Application of Copper Nickel Alloys in Marine Systems. Material Selection for High Reliability Seawater Systems, B. Todd, Seminar Technical Report 7044-1919, CDA Inc, The Application of Copper Nickel Alloys in Marine Systems.


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